Esteroides para caballos de carreras

Nandrolone (17β-hydroxy-4-estren-3-one) is amongst the most misused endogenous steroid hormones in entire male horses. The detection of such a substance is challenging with regard to its endogenous presence. The current international threshold level for nandrolone misuse is based on the urinary concentration ratio of 5α-estrane-3β,17α-diol (EAD) to 5(10)-estrene-3β,17α-diol (EED). This ratio, however, can be influenced by a number of factors due to existing intra- and inter-variability standing, respectively, for the variation occurring in endogenous steroids concentration levels in a single subject and the variation in those same concentration levels observed between different subjects. Targeting an efficient detection of nandrolone misuse in entire male horses, an analytical strategy was set up in order to profile a group of endogenous steroids in nandrolone-treated and non-treated equines. Experiment plasma and urine samples were steadily collected over more than three months from a stallion administered with nandrolone laurate (1 mg/kg). Control plasma and urine samples were collected monthly from seven non-treated stallions over a one-year period. A large panel of steroids of interest (n = 23) were extracted from equine urine and plasma samples using a C18 cartridge. Following a methanolysis step, liquid-liquid and solid-phase extractions purifications were performed before derivatization and analysis on gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for quantification. Statistical processing of the collected data permitted to establish statistical models capable of discriminating control samples from those collected during the three months following administration. Furthermore, these statistical models succeeded in predicting the compliance status of additional samples collected from racing horses.

Esteroides para caballos de carreras

esteroides para caballos de carreras

Media:

esteroides para caballos de carrerasesteroides para caballos de carrerasesteroides para caballos de carrerasesteroides para caballos de carrerasesteroides para caballos de carreras

http://buy-steroids.org