National Jewish Medical and Research Center: "Inhaled Medication with a Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI)."
Asthma Society of Canada: "How to Use Your Inhaler."
Science Daily: "New Asthma Inhaler Propellant Effective, But Costlier."
American College of Chest Physicians: "Using Your MDI-Closed Mouth Technique, Patient Education Guide."
American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI): "Cumulative effects of formoterol administered by a dry powder inhaler;" "Inhalers;" and "Anti-inflammatory effects of inhaled steroids delivered by HFA-MDI vs delivery by dry powder inhaler."
News release, Merck.
Boehringer Ingelheim: "US FDA Expands Approval of Tiotropium Respimat® for Maintenance Treatment of Asthma in Children."
FDA. Prescribing Information: Spiriva Respimat.