Structure of steroidal saponins

Bleeding can result from this combination of high internal pressure and vessel wall weakness. Such hemorrhages are often microscopic in size, causing limited damage and few significant symptoms. Even many nonsymptomatic AVMs show evidence of past bleeding. But massive hemorrhages can occur if the physical stresses caused by extremely high blood pressure , rapid blood flow rates, and vessel wall weakness are great enough. If a large enough volume of blood escapes from a ruptured AVM into the surrounding brain, the result can be a catastrophic stroke . AVMs account for approximately 2 percent of all hemorrhagic strokes that occur each year.

Kidney failure may be treated with hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis or kidney transplantation. Treatment with hemodialysis (the artificial kidney) may be performed at a dialysis unit or at home. Hemodialysis treatments are usually performed three times a week. Peritoneal dialysis is generally done daily at home. Continuous Cycling Peritoneal Dialysis requires the use of a machine while Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis does not. A kidney specialist can explain the different approaches and help individual patients make the best treatment choices for themselves and their families.

NSAIDS have antipyretic activity and can be used to treat fever. [75] [76] Fever is caused by elevated levels of prostaglandin E2 , which alters the firing rate of neurons within the hypothalamus that control thermoregulation. [75] [77] Antipyretics work by inhibiting the enzyme COX, which causes the general inhibition of prostanoid biosynthesis ( PGE2 ) within the hypothalamus . [75] [76] PGE2 signals to the hypothalamus to increase the body's thermal set point. [76] [78] Ibuprofen has been shown more effective as an antipyretic than paracetamol (acetaminophen). [77] [79] Arachidonic acid is the precursor substrate for cyclooxygenase leading to the production of prostaglandins F, D & E.

Structure of steroidal saponins

structure of steroidal saponins

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