Topical steroids immunosuppression

Transdermal patches can be a very precise time released method of delivering a drug. Cutting a patch in half might affect the dose delivered. The release of the active component from a transdermal delivery system (patch) may be controlled by diffusion through the adhesive which covers the whole patch, by diffusion through a membrane which may only have adhesive on the patch rim or drug release may be controlled by release from a polymer matrix. Cutting a patch might cause rapid dehydration of the base of the medicine and affect the rate of diffusion.

The most common side effect of topical corticosteroid use is skin atrophy. All topical steroids can induce atrophy, but higher potency steroids, occlusion, thinner skin, and older patient age increase the risk. The face, the backs of the hands, and intertriginous areas are particularly susceptible. Resolution often occurs after discontinuing use of these agents, but it may take months. Concurrent use of topical tretinoin (Retin-A) % may reduce the incidence of atrophy from chronic steroid applications. 30 Other side effects from topical steroids include permanent dermal atrophy, telangiectasia, and striae.

Corticosteroids have been used as drug treatment for some time. Lewis Sarett of Merck & Co. was the first to synthesize cortisone, using a complicated 36-step process that started with deoxycholic acid, which was extracted from ox bile . [43] The low efficiency of converting deoxycholic acid into cortisone led to a cost of US $200 per gram. Russell Marker , at Syntex , discovered a much cheaper and more convenient starting material, diosgenin from wild Mexican yams . His conversion of diosgenin into progesterone by a four-step process now known as Marker degradation was an important step in mass production of all steroidal hormones, including cortisone and chemicals used in hormonal contraception . [44] In 1952, . Peterson and . Murray of Upjohn developed a process that used Rhizopus mold to oxidize progesterone into a compound that was readily converted to cortisone. [45] The ability to cheaply synthesize large quantities of cortisone from the diosgenin in yams resulted in a rapid drop in price to US $6 per gram, falling to $ per gram by 1980. Percy Julian's research also aided progress in the field. [46] The exact nature of cortisone's anti-inflammatory action remained a mystery for years after, however, until the leukocyte adhesion cascade and the role of phospholipase A2 in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes was fully understood in the early 1980s.

Pseudocatalase - There are 2 forms of pseudocatalase (PCat) - They are PC-KUS, developed by Dr. Karin Schallreuter, and PCAT, available only through a few compounding pharmacies in the US and Canada. Dr. Schallreuter's formula is only available through an initial consultation at her clinic in Griefswald, Germany. The two formulas are similar in nature, though Dr Schallreuter's formula is specific to the individual. PCat is typically applied to the entire body twice per day. NB-UVB is used for a very brief period of 15 seconds or so to activate the medication.

Topical steroids immunosuppression

topical steroids immunosuppression

Pseudocatalase - There are 2 forms of pseudocatalase (PCat) - They are PC-KUS, developed by Dr. Karin Schallreuter, and PCAT, available only through a few compounding pharmacies in the US and Canada. Dr. Schallreuter's formula is only available through an initial consultation at her clinic in Griefswald, Germany. The two formulas are similar in nature, though Dr Schallreuter's formula is specific to the individual. PCat is typically applied to the entire body twice per day. NB-UVB is used for a very brief period of 15 seconds or so to activate the medication.

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